News: $250 million longs wiped out by bitcoin whale, Binance reopens withdrawals, Bitfinex set to trade LEO

Screen Shot 2019-05-18 at 5.17.10 PMThe price of bitcoin (BTC) is organically decided by traders—big ones, and only a few of them.

In the morning of May 17, the price of bitcoin did a nosedive, dropping from around $7,726 to $6,777 in about 20 minutes. The plunge was due to the actions of a single large trader (a “whale”) putting up 5,000 BTC (worth about $40 million) on crypto exchange Bitstamp.

The massive liquidation wiped out $250 million worth of long positions on BitMEX, a bitcoin derivatives exchange based in Hong Kong. (The BTC price it used bottomed at $6,469.15.) This, in turn, caused bitcoin’s price to plummet on other exchanges.

It’s hard not to view this as intentional price manipulation. 

BitMEX relies on two exchanges—Bitstamp and Coinbase Pro—equally weighted, for its Bitcoin-US dollar price index. Bitstamp and Coinbase both have low trading volumes, which makes them particularly vulnerable to price manipulations. It is like rolling a bowling ball down an alley and there are only two pins. You just have to aim for one.

Dovey Wan, partner at crypto asset investment fund Primitive Ventures, was the first to spot the dump on Bitstamp. She tweeted“As NO ONE will simply keep 5000 BTC on exchange, this is deliberately planned dump scheme, aka manipulation imo.” 

Despite the hit, the price of bitcoin magically recovered. As of this moment, it is trading at around $7,300. Bitstamp has launched an investigation into the large trade.

Delay, delay, delay

In the wake of such blatant price manipulation, it is tough to imagine that the SEC will ever approve a bitcoin exchange-traded fund (EFT).

On May 14, the US regulator again delayed a decision to approve the Bitwise ETF proposal. The deadline for the SEC’s ruling on the VanEck bitcoin ETF is May 21, but I’m betting that will get pushed out again, too.  

Bitfinex

The New York Supreme Court has ordered Bitfinex to stop accessing Tether’s reserves for 90 days, except for normal business activities. The judge modified the New York Attorney General’s original order to ensure it does not restrict Tether’s “ordinary business activities.” Bitfinex played up the event as a “Victory! Yay, we won!” sort of thing, but the NYAG’s investigation is ongoing, and the companies still have to hand over documents.  

Traders clearly don’t have much confidence in Bitfinex at the moment. Amidst the regulatory drama swirling around Bitfinex and Tether, they are moving a “scary” amount of bitcoin off the exchange. 

Meanwhile, Bitfinex is pinning its hopes on its new LEO token. Paolo Ardoino, the company’s CTO, tweeted that Bitfinex raised $1 billion worth of tethers—not actual dollars, mind you, but tethers—in a private sale of its new token LEO. Bitfinex has yet to disclose who actually bought the tokens, but I’m sure they are totally real people. 

Bitfinex announced that on Monday, May 20, it will begin trading LEO in pairs with BTC, USD, USDT, EOS, and ETH. It will be interesting to see if traders actually buy the token. US citizens are not allowed to trade LEO. 

Binance

After freezing deposits and withdrawals for a week following its hack, Binance opened up withdrawals again on May 15. Traders are now free to move their funds off the exchange. 

Binance is looking to create utility around its BNB token. The exchange burned all of its Ethereum-based BNB tokens and replaced them with BEP2 tokens—the native token of Binance Chain. The cold wallet address is here.

Cryptopia, Poloniex, Coinbase

New Zealand crypto exchange Cryptopia is undergoing a liquidation after it experienced two security breaches in January, where is lost 9.4% of all its assets. Its customers are understandably pissed and outraged.

After the breach, the exchange was closed from January until March 4, when it relaunched in a read-only format. Ten days later, traders woke up to a message on the exchange’s website that read, “Don’t Panic! We are currently in maintenance. Thank you for your patience, and we apologize for the inconvenience.” Cryptopia closed permanently on May 15. Grant Thornton NZ, the company handling the liquidation, expects the process will take months.

In the US, regulatory uncertainty continues to plague exchanges. Boston-based Poloniex, which Circle acquired last year, says it will disable US markets for nine tokens (ARDR, BCN, DCR, GAME, GAS, LSK, NXT, OMNI, and REP). “It is not possible to be certain whether US regulators will consider these assets to be securities,” the exchange says. 

Meanwhile, Coinbase is using the $300 million it raised in October to gobble up other companies. The San Francisco-based exchange is in talks to buy Hong Kong-based Xapo for $50 million. Xapo’s coveted product is a network of underground bitcoin cold storage vaults. The firm is rumored to have $5.5 billion worth of bitcoin tucked away in bunkers across five continents. 

Elsewhere in Cryptoland 

John McAfee has disappeared. “He was last seen leaving a prominent crypto person’s home via boat. He is separated from his wife at the moment. Sources are claiming that he is in federal custody,” says The Block founder Mike Dudas.

McAfee’s twitter account is now being operated by staff, who later denied he was in custody, posting pics of McAfee with his wife in their “new” backyard. 

Decrypt’s Ben Munster wrote a hysterical piece on Dudas, who has a habit of apologizing post tweet. “He tweets like Elmer Fudd shoots his shotgun; from the hip, and nearly always in the foot.” The story describes Dudas as a real person with human foibles.  

Bakkt says it’s moving forward with plans to launch a physically settled bitcoin futures product in July. The company does not have CFTC approval yet—instead, it plans to self-certify, after which time, the CFTC will have 10 days to yea or nay the offering.

Both CME and CBoe self-certified their bitcoin futures products as well. The difference is this: they offer cash equivalents to bitcoin upon a contract’s expiration. Bakkt wants to deliver actual bitcoin, which may give the CFTC pause.

The SEC has fined Alex Tapscott, co-author of the book “Blockchain Revolution,” and his investment firm NextBlock, $25,000 over securities violations. (Here is the order.) And the Ontario Securities Commission fined him $1 million.

In 2017, NextBlock raised $20 million to invest in blockchain and crypto companies. In raising the money, Tapscott falsely touted four blockchain bigwigs as advisors in slide decks. After being called out by then-Forbes writer Laura Shin, the company returned investors’ money. But the damage was done, and the SEC went after them anyway.

Tim Swanson pointed out that the the Stellar network went down for about two hours, and only those who run validator nodes noticed. Apparently, nobody actually cares about or uses the Stellar network.  

According to a report by blockchain analysis startup Chainalysis, 376 Individuals own one third of all ether (ETH). Based on a breakdown of the Ethereum initial coin offering, which I wrote for The Block earlier this year, this comes as no surprise.  

Robert-Jan den Haan, who has been researching Bitfinex and Tether since way back when, did a podcast interview with The Block on “What the heck is happening with Bitfinex.” If you are Bitfinex-obsessed like I am, it is worth listening to.   

Apparently, kicking back at regulators is super costly and something you may want to consider before you launch a token that doesn’t have an actual use case. SEC negotiations have cost Kik $5 million, as the media startup tries to defend its KIN token.

# # #

On and (literally) off the road to Quadriga—the perilous drive to Halifax

We made it to the Quadriga hearing alive. That was all I could think of when my friend and I stumbled into the Nova Scotia Supreme Courthouse on March 5, somewhat hungover, but all in one piece.

The insolvency of Quadriga, the biggest crypto exchange in Canada, is a true tale of intrigue. As a journalist, I could not get enough. My distraction was such that good sense and attention to life’s smaller details often went out the window.

A few weeks ago, Kyle Gibson, my equally Quadriga-obsessed comrade, and I thought it a great idea to drive to from our hometown of Boston to Halifax to witness the hearing firsthand. Flights to Halifax are expensive and involve lots of stops. Why not drive?

We talked about it all week—what food to bring in the car, who would be at the trial, and how many days we would stay in Canada.

I had been away all week in Los Angeles. On Sunday, March 3, I flew into Boston on a redeye—because who needs sleep? We set off that afternoon in my 2001 Honda with just enough time to make a quick stop at the liquor store. 

Saddled up with beer, wine and a few bags of trail mix, we headed north. That night, we found ourselves winding through the dark backroads of Maine. Other than intermittent signs warning of us of moose, we were surrounded by scant evidence of civilization.

After crossing the border into Canada, we drove on to Saint John, New Brunswick, and stopped at a hotel. We’d made good progress—400 miles down and only 300 miles to go—and we were immensely proud of ourselves. We drank a few beers, got stoned, and promptly fell asleep.

In the morning we awoke to the sound of snow plows. “Kyle, did you check the weather forecast,” I asked, peering sleepily out the window at my snow-covered car in the parking lot below. Snow was blowing and visibility was such that you could barely see across the street.

“I’ll go clean off the car,” Kyle said, putting on his boots and jacket. We were used to rough Boston winters, but had we read the local weather reports, we would have learned that this was a serious winter storm even by Canadian standards.

A documentary filmmaker whom I was supposed to meet in Halifax sent an email. “Are you going to make it?” she wrote. “I saw all the flights in Boston were cancelled.” I wrote her back, “We are diving, so we’re fine. See you at the hearing!”

By mid-afternoon, the storm had eased, and we were on our way again. The roads were not well plowed. And the landscape looked eerily dystopian with snow covered conifers and windmills scattered in white fields of nothingness. As we drove, we noted a few 18-wheelers that had gone off the road. They looked like crippled mastodons. We thought little of it, other then, wonder what happened to them? And kept driving.

A few hours later, I was dozing in the passenger seat when I heard Kyle go, “Uh, oh, uh oh.” The car was slipping from one side of the road to the other. Like hapless observers, we watched as everything happened in slow motion. Eventually, the car went completely off the road and into the median, where it came to a muffled stop in several feet of snow.

“I’m sorry. I’m sorry,” Kyle said, shaking his head and hitting his hands against the steering wheel. “We’re fine,” I said, trying to ease his guilt. “Everything is fine.”

We were fortunate in that the roads were mostly empty, which meant there were no cars to hit us while we were swerving. But this was also a problem. Who was going to find us? I thought of the Stephen King novel “Misery,” where the writer goes off the road in a storm and gets rescued by an insane person. 

Moments later, a Canadian policeman pulled up out of nowhere, and bounded out of his car. He had a bald head and big white teeth, and a gun slung low around his waist. He cheerfully told us he had been out arresting people all day when he spotted our car poking out of the snow. He wanted to check if we were okay. “Arresting people?” I said. What people was he talking about? There was virtually nothing around us.

With a big smile, he explained that only bad people come out in weather like this. He promptly called a tow truck, and within 30 minutes, we were back on the road again.

Kyle and I laughed at our little mishap, and Kyle insisted on getting behind the wheel again. “Good for you,” I said. “Back in the saddle!” Our progress continued, a little slower this time, but we were totally fine.

Also, we were armed with a new plan. If the car started skidding again, instead of breaking, we would accelerate and steer out of the situation. “That’s what you are supposed to do,” I explained. “Okay,” said Kyle. “That’s what we’ll do then.”

By the time we entered Nova Scotia, temps were warmer and the roads were free of snow. I was behind the wheel going 60 mph. But it was dark, and we had no idea we were driving on black ice.

Just like that, the car spun out of control again, but this time, the road was filled with 18 wheelers. We slid wildly back and forth across the freeway, before a 180-degree spin threw our backend into a snowbank and left us pointing into oncoming traffic. My attempts to accelerate and steer out of the situation had proven absolutely worthless. 

“Jesus Christ,” I said, realizing for the first time our lives were in danger. “It’s okay!,” said Kyle, who leapt out of the car and began tossing snow out from around the tires. I jumped out, too, imagining it only a matter of time before another car hit the same patch of black ice and slammed into us. We were going to die.

A woman in a Honda CRV pulled up ahead of us and got out of her car. She was wearing yoga pants. “Are you okay?” she asked with the same cheerfulness as the police officer we had run into earlier. “We’re fine,” I said, explaining to her that we were from Boston. 

“Are those winter tires or all-season?,” she asked looking at my car. All season, I told her, which is fine because all season means all seasons—and winter is a season.

She offered to call a tow, but we declined. “He’s going to dig us out,” I said pointing to Kyle who was kicking up snow. “Okay,” she said, getting back into her SUV. “I’m going to pick up my son, but if you’re still here on the way back, I’ll stop again.” As she got ready to leave, she stuck her head out the window and shouted, “Welcome to Canada!” 

By then, Kyle had flung most of the snow out from around the tires. We hopped back in the car, and after lurching backward and forward a few times, managed to propel the car back onto the frozen highway and do a quick u-turn (with the front wheels still spinning on the ice) to face the right direction.

Terrified, we drove 25 mph with our hazard lights on the rest of the way to our Airbnb. When we got there, we dragged all our stuff upstairs and proceeded to drink copiously. Before heading to bed, I looked at Kyle, and said, “Welcome to Canada.”

Court grants Quadriga a 45-day stay and approves appointment of a new mouth to feed: a chief restructuring officer

Screen Shot 2019-03-06 at 3.17.26 AMQuadriga was granted a 45-day stay from its creditor protection deadline, and the judge gave a thumbs up, albeit reluctantly, to the appointment of a chief restructuring officer (CRO).

Canada’s largest crypto exchange was granted creditor protection on February 5, after its CEO died, leaving the company belly up. Now, a growing team of professionals are working to to track down the exchange’s fund.

In front of Nova Scotia Supreme Court Justice Michael Wood on Tuesday, sat eight or nine lawyers and representatives of court-appointed monitor Ernst and Young (EY). Some had to fly in from out of town to attend the hearing. Looking at the group, you easily grasp how Quadriga’s Companies’ Creditors Arrangement Act (CCAA) has already gone through $410,000 CAD ($307,000 USD) in professional fees. 

Wood asked what would happen if the stay was not extended. “I think you would have a free for all,” said Maurice Chaisson, Quadriga’s lawyer, who is with law firm Stewart Mckelvey. Chaisson described a situation where creditors from different jurisdictions would begin filing lawsuits willy nilly. Ultimately, Wood granted the stay, telling the court, he felt Quadriga was working in good faith.

When it came to appointing a CRO—a person who would relieve Jennifer Robertson, the widow of Quadriga’s dead CEO, of some of her duties—the judge was not so easily swayed. Robertson and her stepfather Tom Beazley are the only two remaining directors of the company, after a third director, Jack Martel stepped down.  

“This is another cost, another burden,” Wood said. Chaisson argued that the CRO would bring value to the CCAA process, especially if Quadriga were to be sold down the line or if “the cryptocurrency search turned out to be highly successful.” (The most recent monitor’s report identified six bitcoin cold wallets that had all been emptied.) “I think the CRO, in that circumstance, would have a useful role to play,” he said. 

Chaisson was not the only one to mention the possibility of selling the platform in the future. Speaking on behalf of EY, Elizabeth Pillon, a lawyer with Stikeman Elliott, said, “at this stage, We are still in the data recovery, the asset recovery mode. This might move next into the platform monetization.” She was also in support of a CRO.

Lawyers from Miller Thomson and Cox & Palmer, the law firms representing the Quadriga users were concerned with assembling a committee to represent the creditors. “We are in a bit of a bind,” Gavin MacDonald, a partner at Cox & Palmer told the court. The official committee is not yet formed. We do not have a body from whom we can receive instructions.”   

Wood emphasized he did not think the term CRO was appropriate. He described the CCAA process as a search for funds, not the restructuring of a company. In a compromise, he agreed to the appointment as long as the CRO would work at the direction of the monitor to ensure there would be no duplication of work and to keep costs to a minimum. (As a note, nobody has yet said what the CRO’s hourly fee is.) 

The judge also granted an order allowing the monitor to gain access to trading platform data stored in the cloud. Quadriga’s CEO Gerald Cotten kept all of the platform on Amazon Web Servers (AWS), but he kept the AWS account in his name — not the company’s name. The data is important to verifying the claims of the creditors and determining what happened to the business prior to Cotten’s death. 

Wood also deferred an order on repaying Robertson the $300,000 CAD ($225,000 USD) that she put up to kick off the CCAA process.

The next hearing is scheduled for April 18 at 9:30 a.m.

Third EY monitor’s report on Quadriga reveals empty bitcoin cold wallets and a dribbling of new funds

Screen Shot 2019-03-02 at 3.33.35 PMErnst and Young (EY), the court-appointed monitor in Quadriga’s Companies’ Creditor Arrangement Act (CCAA), has filed its third report in Nova Scotia Supreme Court.

The defunct crypto exchange was holding $250 million CAD ($190 million USD) in crypto and fiat at the time it went bust. EY has been trying to track down any recoverable funds—and it’s not finding much.

The majority of the recoverable money will likely come from Quadriga’s third-party payment processors. The monitor has written to 10 known payment processors requesting they hand over any funds they are holding on behalf of Quadriga. (Previously, EY identified nine payment processors. Now it has added one more, though it does not reveal the name.) Here is the grim news: since its last report filed on February 20, EY has only recovered an additional $5,000 CAD ($3,800 USD) from the payment processors. 

This is in addition to the $30 million CAD ($23 million USD) EY has already recovered from the two payment processors Billerfy/Costodian and 1009926 B.C. Ltd. 

More money is out there, but getting at it may be tough. As I wrote earlier, WB21 is sitting on $12 million CAD ($9 million USD), which it is refusing to relinquish. EY notes that “further relief from the court may be necessary to secure funds and records from certain of the third party processors.”

So negligent was Quadriga in its bookkeeping that it appears to have lost track of some of its money altogether. EY located a Quadriga bank account at the Canadian credit union containing $245,000 CAD ($184,000 USD). The account had been frozen since 2017.  

EY also reached out to 14 other crypto exchanges looking for accounts that may have been opened by Quadriga or its dead CEO Gerald Cotten. EY did not name any of the exchanges, but four replied. One of them was holding a small amount of crypto on behalf of Quadriga, which it has handed over to EY.

I don’t know this for sure, but it is possible the exchange that returned the funds may have been Kraken. 

[Update: I was wrong. Kraken CEO Jesse Powell says, “Nothing recovered from Kraken. So far, we have not discovered any accounts/funds believed to belong to Quadriga.”]

Two thirds of the customer funds ($180 million CAD or $136 million USD) that Quadriga held at the time of its collapse were said have been in the form of crypto located in cold, or offline, wallets that only the exchange’s dead CEO had access to. However, it is looking more and more like those funds may have never existed. 

EY identified six cold wallet addresses that Quadriga used to store bitcoin in the past. Other than the sixth wallet, there have been no deposits into the identified bitcoin cold wallets since April 2018, except for the 104 bitcoin inadvertently transferred to one of them from Quadriga’s hot wallet on February 6, 2019. 

Post April 2018, the sixth wallet appears to have been used to receive bitcoin from another crypto exchange account and subsequently transfer the bitcoin to the Quadriga hot wallet. The sixth wallet is currently empty. The last transaction from the sixth wallet was initiated on December 3, 2018, days before Cotten died.

The monitor also identified three other potential Quadriga cold wallet addresses used to store cryptocurrency, but provided no detail.

Quadriga apparently created 14 fake accounts on its own exchange for trading fake funds. Deposits into some of the accounts “may have been artificially created and subsequently used for trading” on the platform, the report said.

A few other items in the monitor’s report caught my attention.  

Quadriga’s platform data is stored in the cloud on Amazon Web Services (AWS). But because the account was in Cotten’s personal name and not the company’s, EY is seeking a court order to authorize access. Here is where that gets weird: EY notes that there is possibly another AWS account in the name of Jose Reyes, the principal of Billerfy. Why would a payment processor need access to Quadriga’s transaction data?  

Also buried in the monitor’s report are signs EY may be getting frustrated in its dealings with Robertson and her stepfather Tom Beazley. They are the only two directors left at Quadriga. A third director, Jack Martel, resigned last month.

Recall that in her second affidavit, Robertson sought the appointment of a chief restructuring officer (CRO) for Quadriga. EY states that it “continues to see some benefit” of having someone independent of Robertson and Beazley making decisions at Quadriga.

The wording is careful, but the report goes on to say that in order for EY’s investigation “to proceed appropriately, without any conflict or appearance of any conflict,” EY needs to communicate with Quadriga “in an appropriate manner and at an appropriate time.”

Finally, less than one month in, the cost of Quadriga’s CCAA procedures now sits at $410,000 CAD ($309,000 USD).  

Diving into WB21—the company holding $9 million of Quadriga money

Screen Shot 2019-02-27 at 5.51.35 PM

A “bitcoin friendly” payment processor with a reputation for accepting bank wires and not actually processing them, is sitting on $12 million CAD ($9 million USD) of Quadriga funds.

WB21 is not showing any sign of wanting to hand over those funds either. That has some Quadriga creditors worried that more of their money has vaporized.

When Quadriga, the largest crypto exchange in Canada, went belly up earlier this year, it owed its customers $250 million CAD ($190 million USD). Two thirds of those funds are in the form of cryptocurrency stuck in cold wallets that only the company’s dead CEO Gerald Cotten held the keys to.

Meanwhile, Ernst and Young (EY), the court-appointed monitor in Quadriga’s Companies’ Creditors Arrangement Act (CCAA), is trying to round up any funds that remain. EY has contacted nine third-party payment processors that may be holding money on behalf of Quadriga. Two of them, Billerfy/Costodian and 1009926 BC LTD, are in the process of signing over $30 million CAD ($23 million USD).  

But according to an affidavit filed by Cotten’s widow Jennifer Robertson on January 31, WB21 has another roughly $9 million CAD and $2.4 million USD “but is refusing to to release the funds or respond to communications from Quadriga.”

After this story was published, Amish Patel, WB21’s global head of litigation, said in an email that the balances stated by Robertson “are not confirmed,” and that the account is “under investigation.” Patel also accused me of defamation and threatened me with legal action if I did not make several updates to my story.

So, who is WB21?

WB21 stands for “web bank 21st century.” Launched in Switzerland in late 2015, the company touts itself as a virtual bank that lets you “streamline” opening up a bank account from 180 countries. But it is really a payment processor with a shady past that Quadriga got involved with—another shady business partner, what are the odds?

In June 2016, WB21 announced that it was accepting bitcoin deposits. Send in your bitcoin, and WB21 will credit your account in fiat—though it relies on payment service BitPay to convert the bitcoin to fiat. “The funds are instantly available on the account and can be sent out by wire transfers or spent with a WB21 debit card,” WB21 says. 

The startup went on to launch a PR campaign that consisted of mainly, well, making stuff up. After 10 months of doing business, WB21 claimed it had 1 million customers and that it had sent cross-border payments totaling more than $5.2 billion.

Those number don’t really add up, especially when you consider it took Transferwise, one of the biggest London-based fintech companies, four years to get a comparable $4.5 billion in transfer money. Also, as Gruenderszene points out, in September 2016, WB21’s official app had only 100 downloads on Google’s Play Store.

In defense, WB21 CEO Michael Gastauer told Gruenderszene that WB21 doesn’t rely on its mobile app. A few hours after the conversation, Gruenderszene noted that the app disappeared from the store. 

Boasting a $2.2 billion valuation, WB21 also claimed that Gastauer sold Apax Group, a previous payments business, for $480 million, and that WB21 turned down a $50 million funding round after Gastauer invested $24 million of his own money. Kadhim Shubber at the Financial Times did some digging and found no evidence of Apax being sold.

Yet Forbes (wait, did Forbes pull that story? Try this link), The Huffington Post and Business Insider all wrote about WB21’s incredible success. Though to its credit, Business Insider later added it was “unable to independently verify these numbers.”

In late 2017, WB21 even got itself in the Wall Street Journal after announcing that it was moving its European head office from London to Berlin after the Brexit vote.

How did WB21, a company spewing so many questionable facts and figures, manage to get all this media coverage? Like another company that we’ve been hearing about lately, the payment processor leveraged the power of social media. WB21 has a Twitter account with 65,000, mostly fake, followers.

Screen Shot 2019-02-28 at 2.34.44 PMGastauer, a man in his mid-40s who hails from Germany, also appears in an impressive Youtube video at an unheard of “Global Banking Award 2018” event in Frankfurt, where he apparently won the award. Dressed elegantly in a tux, with a fog machine in the background, he gives a speech on the future of banking. “How do you come up with an idea like this?,” he says. “Do you wake up one morning thinking you want to revolutionize an 80 trillion dollar industry?”

But the truth has a way of catching up. In October 2018, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) revealed a civil lawsuit accusing Gastauer of aiding and abetting the fraudulent sale of $165 million USD worth of shares in microcap stocks.

“In reality, WB21 Group was not a registered bank, and Gastauer’s ‘solution’ was actually a circumvention of banking regulations designed to disguise his clients’ [ . . .] identities,” the SEC said.

As it turns out, this was not Gastauer’s first run in with authorities. Writing again for the Financial Times, Shubber notes:

“In 2010, [Gastauer] was given an 18-month suspended sentence by a court in Switzerland for commercial fraud and counterfeiting. Around the same time, a British gambling company sued him in London for allegedly taking millions of pounds from it. He had set up a payments processor, the company claimed, but kept the payments.”

Shubber goes on to comment:

“The story of Mr Gastauer is not just about alleged wrongdoing in the financial markets; it shows how an accused fraudster might sell himself and his fantastical story using the modern tools of the internet age.”

A Google search finds the Internet littered with WB21 customers claiming the company stole their money.

In August 2018, “bitcoinjack” wrote of WB21 on Reddit, “They will accept incoming funds and credit your account but you will never be able to get it out. They will lie about outgoing payments until you give up.”

Consumer review website Trustpilot has a long list of people complaining that WB21 has taken their money and gone silent.

Quadriga customers began having trouble with WB21 about a year ago. They complained on Reddit that their bank wires were either not coming through or delayed. In response, Quadriga covered for WB21, blaming the delays on a bank in Poland that it was using:

“We used WB21 for about a week, but the vast majority of delays related to wires comes from the fact that the intermediary bank that handled CAD wires for the Polish bank cut them off due to the association with Bitcoin. We had to reissue all of these from other payment processors, all manually, which has caused delays.”

(This story was updated on March 5 to include a statement from WB21.)

 

‘Platform error’ blamed for BTC being sent to Quadriga’s dead CEO’s cold wallet

Screen Shot 2019-02-21 at 3.02.45 AMThe 104 bitcoin (worth $468,675 CAD) that Canadian crypto exchange QuadrigaCX “inadvertently” sent to its dead CEO’s cold wallets on February 6—a day after the company filed for creditor protection—was due to a “platform setting error.”

That and other news was included in Ernst & Young’s (EY’s) second report, released on February 20. EY is the court-appointed monitor in Quadriga’s Companies’ Creditors Arrangement Act (CCAA). At least now we know that the bitcoin wasn’t sent by somebody clumsily pushing a wrong button. Still, that single automation wiped out more than half of Quadriga’s hot wallet funds.

The rest of the hot wallet funds, worth $434,068 CAD, are now safe from Quadriga. On February 14, EY transferred the coins into cold wallets that it controls. The funds include 51 bitcoin, 33 bitcoin cash, 2,032 bitcoin gold, 822 litecoin, and 951 ether. But all of this is a mere drop in the bucket compared to the $250 million CAD owed to Quadriga’s 115,000 creditors—most of which is presumably lost forever.

Also in the report: Recall that Quadriga elected a new board following the death of its CEO Gerald Cotten on December 9. The new directors included Cotten’s widow Jennifer Robertson, her stepfather Thomas Beazley and a man named Jack Martel, who nobody knew too much about. Apparently, Martel stepped down on February 11.

And more money is needed to fund Quadriga’s CCAA process. EY and Quadriga’s law firm Stewart McKelvey have already burned through the nearly $300,000 CAD Robertson put up to initiate the process in January.  

Additional money for the CCAA process—and ultimately for Quadriga’s creditors—will come from Quadriga’s payment processors, once they hand the money over to EY in the form of bank drafts. EY also has to get a bank to agree to accept the bank drafts, which is not an easy thing to do. Most banks want nothing to do with Quadriga’s money. 

Costodian, a company created by payment processor Billerfy specifically to manage Quadriga’s funds, is holding $26 million CAD in bank drafts. After the Canadian Imperial Bank of Commerce froze those funds in January 2018, the Ontario Superior Court of Justice took control of that money, and in December, released the funds back to Costodian in the form of bank drafts issued by the Bank of Montreal (BOM).

According to EY, Costodian has so far handed over four BOM bank drafts totaling $20 million CAD. But it is waiting for a court order before releasing two more bank drafts.

One of those is for roughly $70,000 USD. These are personal funds belonging to Costodian’s principal Jose Reyes. EY has determined that those funds do indeed belong to Reyes, but he still needs to sign the check over to EY for disbursement.

The other BOM bank draft in question is for $5 million CAD. Of that amount, Custodian claims that $61,000 CAD also represent Reyes’ personal funds, and that $778,000 CAD is due to Custodian for unpaid processing fees.

Quadriga creditors don’t agree that Costodian should be paid these fees. To resolve the issue, EY notes that “a separate dispute resolution mechanism will be required during the course of these CCAA proceedings.”

In addition, Stewart McKelvey is holding 1,004 in bulk drafts totaling $6 million. These drafts were issued to 1009926 BC LTD, a payment processor run by a former Quadriga contractor. The problem is 1009926 BC LTD was dissolved in January 2018 for failure to file an annual report, so EY is looking to potentially restore the company.

EY is currently negotiating with the Royal Bank of Canada (RBC), where it hopes to deposit most of these checks. RBC is proceeding with caution, however.

According to EY, “a stranger to the CCAA proceedings, RBC has expressed hesitation to accept and disburse the BMO drafts, bulk drafts and future amounts, without direction and relief from the court.”

A hearing is scheduled for February 22 to give direction to the banks and to the third-party payment processors, so the funds can be freed up.

After that, another hearing to extend the stay of the CCAA proceedings is scheduled for March 5 in Halifax, where angry Quadriga creditors are looking to stage a protestThe protesters are urging the court to discontinue the CCAA proceedings and launch a criminal probe into Quadriga.  

Update (February 21, 12:30 ET): I made some changes to clarify the amount of personal funds that Custodian principal Jose Reyes claims belong to him in two BOM bank drafts.

Two law firms appointed to represent QuadrigaCX creditors

Screen Shot 2019-02-19 at 7.31.36 PMQuadrigaCX creditors now have a legal team to represent them in the crypto exchange’s Companies’ Creditors Arrangement Act (CCAA) proceedings.

Nova Scotia Supreme Court Judge Michael Wood appointed law firms Miller Thomson and Cox & Palmer to represent the more than 115,000 Quadriga creditors, who are owed a total of $250 million CAD. Most of that money— $180.5 million CAD—is stuck in cold wallets after the company’s CEO died in India. He was the only one who held the keys.  

To offer some background, a CCAA is a federal law in Canada that gives insolvent companies, such as Quadriga, time to restructure themselves and come up with a so-called plan of arrangement. It is not quite like a bankruptcy. A company can still operate and pay its employees during the proceedings.  

When Quadriga was granted creditor protection on February 5, the judge issued a 30-day stay, to keep any lawsuits at bay. The court also appointed Ernst & Young as a monitor to oversee Quadriga’s business and help Quadriga put together its plan of arrangement.

If that plan is accepted by the court and the creditors, Quadriga users will likely be able to recoup some of their losses more expediently. If the plan is rejected, the stay will be lifted, and creditors can forge ahead with their lawsuits.

In the case of Quadriga, because there are so many creditors, the court felt it appropriate to find them legal representation. Three teams of lawyer vied for that position on February 12. Justice Wood reviewed their credentials and made his final decision today.

In his ruling, he explained that he chose Miller Thompson/Cox & Palmer because both firms have extensive insolvency experience. In the coming weeks, Cox and Palmer, which has an office in Halifax, will take the lead on the civil procedure and court appearances, while Miller Thompson, which is headquartered in Toronto, will handle “project management, communication and cryptocurrencies.”  

The judge noted in his ruling that the firms’ proposal was “thought out carefully with a view to minimizing costs.” The team proposed an initial $250,000 cap on fees. They also said that they would communicate with creditors via social media, and that they would advocate for user privacy, something Quadriga users indicated was important to them. 

Appointing a representative counsel and a stakeholder representative committee in complex CCAA proceedings is not unusual, the judge said. Such measures are usually undertaken when the group of stakeholders is large and without representation, many of them would struggle to effectively participate in the CCAA proceedings.

He also agreed with Quadriga’s lawyer Maurice Chiasson and others that assembling a committee of users to represent the broader group of creditors was something that needed to happen quickly.

“The anecdotal evidence at the hearing is that many people are extremely upset, angry and concerned about dishonest and fraudulent activity,” he wrote. “There are reports of death threats being made to people associated with the applicants. All parties agree that this user group needs representation as soon as possible.”

Quadriga’s stay of proceedings expires on March 7. A hearing is planned for March 5 to update the court on what progress Quadriga and its monitor Ernst & Young have made.

Update: According to an email Ernst & Young sent to creditors, Quadriga will, in fact, seek to extend the stay of proceedings. The monitor writes that “the stay of proceedings may be extended for any period that the Court deems appropriate. There is no standard timeframe for the completion of proceedings under the CCAA.”

Ernst & Young is posting updates to the CCAA proceedings on its website.

News: Quadriga, Quadriga, Quadriga

The news keeps getting worse for QuadrigaCX creditors. The Canadian crypto exchange has apparently jettisoned another $468,675 CAD worth of bitcoin into deep space.

On February 6, literally, one day after Quadriga applied for creditor protection, the exchange “inadvertently” sent 104 bitcoin to its dead CEO’s cold wallet, according to an initial report released by court-appointed monitor Ernst & Young (EY).

When Quadriga CEO Gerald Cotten died in India on December 9, he carried into the afterlife with him the keys to the exchange’s cold wallets, where $180 million CAD—oops, make that $180.5 million CAD—worth of crypto is stored. Unless Cotten springs from the grave, any crypto in those wallets is as good as gone.

You have to scratch your head till it bleeds on that one. Why was anyone at Quadriga allowed to touch those coins after the company applied for creditor protection? EY is now moving to safeguard the remaining crypto, a stash now down to 51 bitcoin, 33 bitcoin cash, 2,032 bitcoin gold, 822 litecoin, and 951 ether, worth $434,068 CAD. So, yes, basically, more than half the money in the hot wallets is now gone.

(To get the full details on the history of the exchange, read my article How the hell did we get here? A timeline of Quadriga events.)

EY is also working to retrieve about $30 million worth of cash from nine Quadriga payment processors. So far, EY has yet to collect a dime, and one of the processors is stubbornly insisting that “it has the right to continue to hold funds in its possession pursuant to the terms of its agreement with the Applicants.”

Which payment processor would that be then? How about WB21? According to Robertson’s affidavit filed on January 31, WB21 is holding roughly $9 million CAD and $2.4 million USD of the exchange’s money. Even before EY took over, WB21 was “refusing to release the funds or respond to communications from Quadriga.”

A quick Google search reveals that WB21 has long been plagued by accusations that it is a scam. A year ago, Quadriga customers were complaining on Reddit that they were having trouble getting their wires from WB21. And, surprise, surprise, it also turns out, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) is suing WB21’s CEO for fraud. (You can find the full SEC complaint here.)

Quadriga’s 115,000 creditors need proper representation. On February 14, three legal teams appeared in court to vie for the position of representative counsel. Nova Scotia Supreme Court Judge Michael Wood said he plans to have a final decision next week.

All this legal stuff is getting expensive. So far, Robertson has put up $250,000 CAD of the $300,000 CAD she promised in her affidavit to fund the CCAA process. And the funds are being gobbled up quick. Quadriga’s lawyer Maurice Chiasson said the money will run out in two weeks, if not or sooner.

After that, where will the money come from? Likely, out of whatever funds EY pulls from those nine payment processors.

Meanwhile, more funny business is starting to surface. In her sworn affidavit, Cotten’s widow stated that she had no dealings with Quadriga prior to Cotten’s death. Yet, three Quadriga creditors (archive) claim they received wires from Robertson’s real estate company, Robertson Nova Property Inc. The wire transactions occurred in 2016 and 2017. This is interesting, given Jennifer only changed her name to Robertson in April 2017.

Screen Shot 2019-02-15 at 9.04.16 PMDid you know that if you wanted to cash out of Quadriga, you could opt to have actual boxes of cash dropped off at your door? That was an actual service Quadriga offered its customers. A few have suggested that the money may have come from bitcoin ATM machines that Quadriga operated.

Remember, Quadriga had no corporate banking. That is why, when you sold bitcoin for cash on the exchange or wired in money via one of Quadriga’s payment processors, your online wallet was credited with QuadrigaCX Bucks—not real bucks.

But who knew? I’ve been speaking to Quadriga creditors and some of them had no clue that the “CAD” they saw in their online wallets was basically Quad Bucks. 

“Everyone knows CAD equals Quad bucks now, but I didn’t know that until after the implosion,” one creditor who preferred to remain anonymous told me. “I guess it was in the terms [and conditions], but it wasn’t marked Quad bucks.” 

Some traders also told me that bitcoin sold for a premium on Quadriga. That meant, you could buy bitcoin on another exchange, such as Kraken, and then sell it for a profit on Quadriga. As an added incentive to move your crypto onto the exchange, Quadriga also offered free cash withdrawals, as long as you did not mind waiting two weeks or so for the money to hit your bank account. You had to pay a fee for express withdrawals.

Finally, the Globe and Mail sent its investigative reporters to India, where Cotten and his wife celebrated their honeymoon just before Cotten died. People are still wondering if his death was staged. “That Mr. Cotten did indeed die is a certainty among police and medical professionals in India, and The Globe reviewed hotel, hospital and embalming records that give no suggestion of anything abnormal,” the Globe writes.

But why was Cotten’s body taken from the hospital where he died back to the hotel where he had been staying? (According to Cotten’s death certificate, Fortis Escorts Hospital was the place of death.) Partly because of this, Simmi Mehra, who works at Mahatma Gandhi Medical College & Hospital, refused to embalm the body.

She told The Globe: “That guy [a representative from the hotel] told me the body will come from the hotel. I said: ‘Why the hotel? I’m not taking any body from the hotel, it should come from Fortis.”

The Globe and Mail report also reveals tragic details of the oft-overlooked Angel House orphanage that Cotten and Robertson sponsored. Apparently, the money they donated only paid for building materials. Several doors are still missing from the structure, including one to the toilet. And the operator of the orphanage is sinking into debt.

The orphanage appears to be yet another example of the wake of destruction that Cotten, who otherwise lived as though money were no object, carelessly left in his passing.

 

 

News: QuadrigaCX has gone bust, Kik is fighting back, and Tether rose to 4th place, briefly

QuadrigaCX customers’ worst fears have come to pass. The Canadian exchange is officially insolvent, and all the crypto is gone—well, most of it anyway.

On January 31, after filing for creditor protection, Jennifer Robertson, the widow of the exchange’s now-deceased CEO Gerald Cotten, filed an affidavit with the Supreme Court of Nova Scotia. As it turns out, Cotten was the only person who held the keys to the exchange’s cold wallets—encrypted wallets where cryptocurrency is kept offline. When he died in December, all that crypto became inaccessible.

According to the affidavit, QuadrigaCX owes 115,000 customers some $250 million CAD ($190 million USD) in both crypto and fiat. Roughly $192 million CAD ($147 million USD) were in crypto assets, most of it in the cold wallets.

In addition to the lost crypto, $30 million CAD is currently held by payment processor Billerfy. Three other third-party payment processors are holding a combined $565,000 CAD. And another $9.2 million USD is stuck inside WB21—a money transfer service that, surprise, surprise, is being sued by the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) for fraud.

But here is where things get strange. Two weeks before he died, Cotten signed a will leaving $100,000 CAD for his two dogs, according to the Globe and Mail (archive.)

I’m not insinuating any foul play here, but let’s go over what we have: Cotten and Robertson supposedly got married two months before his death. Cotten writes up a will to make sure his dogs are taken care of and Robertson takes ownership of 43% of the shares of Quadriga Fintech Solutions, the parent company of QuadrigaCX, should anything awful happen to him. Once that’s all said and done, something awful happens. Cotten goes off to India to help needy children (so nice of him) and dies.

Screen Shot 2019-02-03 at 7.47.19 AM

A month later, Robertson posts an announcement on the exchange’s website telling everyone the company’s CEO is dead. He was a kind, honest, upstanding, guy…after all, he sponsored an orphanage. And then later: Oh, and by the way, all the money is gone, because only Gerald knows where he put it.

[Update: A new twist to this plot may be developing. One Reddit user claims to have found the QuadrigaCX litecoin cold wallet addresses—and the funds appear to be on the move.] 

Elsewhere in the news, Canadian social media startup Kik plans to fight an expected SEC enforcement action over an initial coin offering (ICO). (Read my coverage here.) Kik raised $100 million in 2017 by selling its kin token. In a response to a Wells notice from the SEC, Kik argues that its token is a currency, therefore, it cannot be a security, and besides, the company never marketed kin as an investment anyway.

You could almost go along with that, as long as you completely ignored this 2017 Youtube video of Kik’s CEO Ted Livingston telling everyone how rich they could become if they owned kin. “We’re gonna put [kin] inside Kik and it will become super valuable on day one, we think.” Oops! (Read the full coverage in The Block.)

Two “professional hacking groups” are behind the majority of publicly reported hacks of crypto exchanges and other cryptocurrency organizations, according to a crypto crime report published by blockchain data analytics firm Chainalysis. The two nefarious groups so far have raked in $1 billion of hacking revenues for themselves. Of course, even thieves don’t keep their holdings in bitcoin. They converted everything to fiat.

If you thought SingularDTV was a dreadful name, the blockchain entertainment company has come up with something even more bad. SingularDTV has changed its name to Breaker. The company has a new logo, too—a circle comprised of small lines swirling inward meant to represent the “the hive mind,” a type of groupthink that decentralized projects like to associate themselves with.

Breaker owns Breaker Magazine, which changed its name to BreakerMag to avoid confusion. To go along with the new branding, Breaker (we’re talking about SinglarDTV now) also released a cringe-worthy video that starts with a man gyrating his hips and saying, “It’s like this,” and then devolves into a woman ripping a pink beauty mask off her face. As if the name change wasn’t awkward enough.

Nicholas Weaver, a researcher at International Computer Science Institute, gave a talk at Enigma, a USENIX conference, called “Cryptocurrency: Burn it with Fire!,” where he argued the entire cryptocurrency and blockchain space is effectively one big fraud. Here are the slides to the presentation. The video is not up yet, but Weaver gave a similar talk in April 2018. (It’s funny, watch it.)

For a brief period, tether (USDT), the stablecoin associated with the crypto exchange Bitfinex, rose to become the fourth largest crypto by market cap at $2 billion. It has dropped back down to sixth place now, but who knows, maybe it will rise up again. (Read my tether timeline to learn why tether is so important to crypto markets.)

Banking giant JP Morgan says bitcoin is now worth less than the cost to mine it. “The drop in Bitcoin prices from around $6,500 throughout much of October to below $4,000 now has increasingly pushed margins further and further negative for just about every region except low-cost Chinese miners,” the bank’s analysts said. (Bloomberg)

Despite all the hype, decentralized exchanges (DEX) are not attracting much interest. According to a report in Diar, DEX volume is at an all-time low—something that’s unlikely to change, mainly due to poor usability issues. Another reason to avoid DEXs:  anyone can list any token they like—even if it’s not a legitimate one.

Binance has come up with yet another harebrained business scheme. The Malta-based crypto exchange now allows customers to buy crypto using their credit cards. I can’t see this working out too well. Banks generally distance themselves from all things crypto, and many won’t allow you to put crypto on credit cards. And even if they do, weird things happen. US-based crypto exchange Coinbase no longer accepts credit cards, but when it did, Visa actually overcharged buyers—though, it did eventually issue refunds.

An Italian bankruptcy court found Francisco Firano (aka “Francisco the Bomber”) personally liable for $170 million in losses related to the BitGrail hack in April 2018. (Last year, I wrote a story about the hack for Bitcoin Magazine.) The BitGrail Victims Group posted scans of the court documents along with an explanation of the court’s decision on Medium.

In a big win for nocoiners, David Gerard, author of “Attack of the 50-foot Blockchain,” wrote a op-ed for The Block titled “The Buttcoin Standard: the problem with Bitcoin,” where he basically takes apart bitcoin and criticizes the horrendous energy waste of proof of work. Gerard’s article was solid. But just as you might expect, bitcoiners objected en masse, and even attacked The Block cofounder Mike Dudas.

Most of the criticisms were attempts to discredit the author and consisted of vague comments, such as “[Gerard’s] thought process is fundamentally broken at the protocol level,” “I was hoping for a more astute criticism,” and “terrible journalism!

Apple cofounder Steve Wozniak, who used to go around comparing bitcoin to digital gold, admits he sold all his bitcoin at its peak. “When it shot up high, I said I don’t want to be one of those people who watches and watches it and cares about the number. I don’t want that kind of care in my life,” he said at the Nordic Business Forum. “Part of my happiness is not to have worries, so I sold it all and just got rid of it.” (Satoshi Times)

And finally, the police department in Lawrence, Kansas has been getting reports of bad actors calling people up at random to demand bitcoin.

The curious case of Tether: a complete timeline of events

Stablecoins—virtual currencies pegged to another asset, usually, the U.S. dollar—screen shot 2019-01-15 at 2.22.13 pmbring liquidity to crypto exchanges, especially those that lack ties to traditional banking. To put it more simply, if you are a crypto exchange and you don’t have access to real dollars, stablecoins are the next best thing.

Today, there are lots of stablecoins to choose from. But by far the most popular and widely traded is tether (USDT), issued by a company of the same name. Of the three stablecoin models, Tether follows the I.O.U. model, where virtual coins are supposed to represent actual money and be redeemable at any time. It all sounds well and good, but for one thing: How do we know that tether is fully backed? 

[Update: This story was originally published in January 2019. As of May 2020, there are nearly $9 billion worth of tether circulating in the bitcoin ecosystem.]

Currently, there are 1.9 billion tether in circulation. That means, there should be a corresponding $1.9 billion tucked away in one or more bank accounts somewhere. Bitfinex, the crypto exchange closely linked to Tether, claims the money exists, but has yet to provide an official audit to support those claims. (We have seen snapshots of bank account balances at certain points in time, but these are not real audits.) 

More troubling still, the issuance of tether correlates with the rapid run up in price of bitcoin from April 2017 to December 2018 when bitcoin peaked at nearly $20,000. If authorities were to step in and freeze the bank accounts underlying tether, it is hard to guess what impact that could have on crypto markets at large. 

A timeline of events reveals a full picture of the controversy surrounding Tether and Bitfinex, and provides a reference for anyone interested in researching the topic. 

[An version of this timeline originally appeared in Bitcoin Magazine in February 2018. What follows is a more detailed and up-to-date version.]

Timeline

2012 — iFinex Inc., the company that is to become the parent company for Bitfinex and Tether, is founded in Hong Kong.

2013 — Bitfinex incorporates in Hong Kong. The exchange is run by CSO Phil Potter, CEO Jan Ludovicus van der Velde and CFO Giancarlo Devasini. Potter used to work at Morgan Stanley in New York in the 1990s, but lost the job after bragging about his opulent lifestyle to the New York Times. And in 1996, Devasini was caught pirating and selling a substantial volume of Microsoft Software

July 9, 2014 Brock Pierce, Bitcoin Foundation director and former Disney child actor, launches Realcoin, a dollar-backed stablecoin. Realcoin is built on a Bitcoin second-layer protocol called Mastercoin (now Omni). Pierce was one of the founding members of the Mastercoin Foundation before resigning in July 2014. He founded Realcoin along with Mastercoin CTO Craig Sellars and ad-industry entrepreneur Reeve Collins

September 5, 2014 Appleby, an offshore law firm, helps Bitfinex operators Phil Potter and Giancarlo Devasini set up Tether Holdings Limited in the British Virgin Islands.

September 8, 2014 — Tether Limited registers in Hong Kong.  

October 6, 2014 — The first tethers are issued, according to the Omni block explorer.

November 20, 2014 — Realcoin rebrands as “Tether” and officially launches in private beta. The company hides its full relationship with Bitfinex. A press release (archive) lists Bitfinex as a “partner.” In explaining the name change, project co-founder Reeve Collins tells CoinDesk the firm wanted to avoid association with altcoins. 

February 25, 2015 Tether begins trading, according to data from CoinMarketCap.

May 18, 2015 — Tether issues 200,000 tethers, bringing the total supply to 450,000.

May 22, 2015 Bitfinex is hit with its first hack. The exchange claims it lost 1,500 bitcoin (worth $400,000 at the time) when its hot wallets are breached. The amount represents 0.05 percent of the company’s total holdings. Bitfinex says it will absorb the losses.  

December 1, 2015 — Tether issues 500,000 USDT, bringing the total supply to roughly 950,000. (The price of bitcoin has remained stable throughout most of 2015, but climbs from $250 in October to about $460 in December.)

June 2, 2016 The U.S. Commodity Futures Trading Commission fines Bitfinex $75,000 for offering illegal off-exchange financed retail commodity transactions in bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies and for failing to register as a Futures Commission Merchant as required by the Commodity Exchange Act. In response, Bitfinex moves its crypto funds from an omnibus account into multisig wallets protected by BitGo.

August 2, 2016 —Bitfinex claims it has been hacked again, when 120,000 bitcoin, worth about $72 million, vanish. This is one of the largest hacks in bitcoin’s history, second only to Mt. Gox. Bitfinex never reveals the full details of the breach.

(Chapter 8 of David Gerard’s book “Attack of the 50-Foot Blockchain” offers an in-depth explanation of the hack.)  

August 6, 2016  This time, Bitfinex is unable to absorb the losses. The exchange announces a 36% haircut for almost all of its customers. It even takes funds from those who were not holding any bitcoin at the time of the hack. In return, customers receive an I.O.U. in the form of BFX tokens, initially valued at $1 each.

August 10, 2016 — Zane Tacket, Bitfinex community director, writes on Reddit (archive) that Bitfinex is offering a bounty of 5% (worth up to $3.6 million) for any information leading to recovery of the stolen funds. Also on this day, Bitfinex resumes trading and withdrawals on its platform after having been shut down for a week after the heist.  

August 17, 2016 Bitfinex announces it is engaging Ledger Labs, the blockchain forensic firm founded by Ethereum creator Vitalik Buterin, to investigate its recent breach. Bitfinex hires Ledger to do a computer security audit, but it leads customers into believing Ledger is going to perform a financial audit as well. A financial audit is key to knowing whether Bitfinex was even solvent at the time of the hack.   

In a blog post (archive) Bitfinex writes:

“We are also in the process of engaging Ledger Labs to perform an audit of our complete balance sheet for both cryptocurrency and fiat assets and liabilities.”  

A footnote added to the blog post on April 5, 2017 makes a correction:

“Ledger Labs has not been engaged to perform a financial audit of Bitfinex. When in initial discussions with Ledger Labs in August 2016, we had initially understood that they could offer this service to us…. We are in the process of engaging a reputable, third party accounting firm to audit our balance sheet, but this continues to take longer than anticipated and than we would want. We apologize for any confusion in this matter.”

October 12, 2016 — Bitfinex tries to reach out to the hacker by offering secure communication channels. In a blog post (archive), titled “Message to the individual responsible for the Bitfinex security incident of August 2, 2016,” Bitfinex writes “We would like to have the opportunity to securely communicate with you. It might be possible to reach a mutually agreeable arrangement in exchange for an enormous bug bounty.” It is not clear why a hacker would be interested in such an offer. 

October 13, 2016 — Bitfinex announces (archive) that its largest BFX token holders have agreed to exchange over 20 million BFX tokens for equity shares of iFinex. You can hardly blame Bitfinex customers for taking the bait. Many have already watched BFX tokens drop far below $1. One Redditor even reported the price dropping to $0.30.

As a way to incentivize BFX holders to convert, Bitfinex creates yet another new token: a tradable Recovery Rights Token (RRT). According to the exchange, if any of the stolen bitcoins are recovered, any excess of funds after all BFX tokens have been redeemed will be distributed to RRT token holders.

The incentive looks like this: If you convert your BFX to iFinex shares before October 7, you get one RRT for each BFX token converted. Convert between October 8 and November 1, and you get half an RRT for each BFX token converted. After that, you get 1/4 of an RRT per BFX token converted. No further RTTs are given after November 30.

December 31, 2016 — In the year 2016, Tether issued 6 million USDT, six times what it issued the prior year. 

March 31, 2017 Wells Fargo cuts off services to Bitfinex and Tether, according to court documents in a lawsuit that Bitfinex later files against the bank. Bitfinex is not a direct customer of Wells Fargo, but rather a customer of four Taiwan-based banks that use Wells Fargo as an intermediate to facilitate wire transfers.  

April 3, 2017 — In a blog post (archive), Bitfinex announces plans to redeem any outstanding BFX tokens. “After these redemptions, no BFX tokens will remain outstanding; they will all be destroyed,” the exchange says.

Meanwhile, Potter reveals in an audio that all of the remaining BFX tokens have been converted to tethers. Effectively, this means that none of the victims of the Bitfinex hack in August 2016 got back any of their original funds. Instead, they were all compensated with BFX tokens, RRT tokens and tethers in a trail of tokens that is difficult to follow. 

April 5, 2017 — Two days after announcing it has “paid off” all its debt to customers, Bitfinex files a lawsuit against Wells Fargo for interrupting its wire transfers. Tether is listed as a plaintiff. In addition to an injunction order, Bitfinex seeks more than $75,000 in damages. (See here for a complete list of documents associated with the lawsuit.)

April 10, 2017 A pseudonymous character known as “Bitfinex’eddebuts online. In a relentless series of tweets, he begins accusing Bitfinex of creating tethers out of thin air to pay off debts. At this point, the number of USDT in circulation is 55 million, and the price of bitcoin has begun a steep ascent that will continue to the end of the year.

April 11, 2017 — Bitfinex withdraws the lawsuit against Wells Fargo. In an audio, Potter admits the lawsuit was frivolous, stating the company was only hoping to “buy time.”

April 17, 2017 — Following a notice about wire delays, Bitfinex announces (archive) it has been shut off by its four main Taiwanese banks: Hwatai Commercial Bank, KGI Bank, First Commercial Bank, and Taishin Bank. Bitfinex is now left to move between a series of banks in other countries without telling its customers where it is keeping its reserves.

In an audio, Bitfinex CSO Phil Potter tries to calm customers by telling them that Bitfinex effectively deals with this sort of thing by setting up shell accounts and tricking banks.

“We’ve had banking hiccups in the past, we’ve just always been able to route around it or deal with it, open up new accounts, or what have you…shift to a new corporate entity, lots of cat and mouse tricks.” 

Around this time, Bitfinex also begins to rely increasingly upon Crypto Capital, a third-party payment processor based in Panama. 

April 24, 2017 — Tether’s dollar peg is maintained via market making and instilling confidence in the value of the coin. Amidst reports that Bitfinex had been cut off from Wells Fargo and shut off from Taiwanese banks, USDT temporarily dips to $0.91.  

May 5, 2017 After finally clarifying (archive) to customers that it only engaged Ledger Labs for a security audit—not a financial audit—Bitfinex hires accounting firm Friedman LLP to complete a comprehensive balance sheet audit. “A third-party audit is important to all Bitfinex stakeholders, and we’re thrilled that Friedman will be helping us achieve this goal,” Bitfinex writes in a blog post (archive).

August 5, 2017 — Bitfinex’ed publishes his first blog post “Meet ‘Spoofy.’ How a Single Entity Dominates the Price of Bitcoin.” The post explains how an illegal form of market manipulation known as spoofing works. In it, a video shows a Bitfinex trader putting up a large order of bitcoin just long enough to push up the price of bitcoin.  

This is not the first time a crypto exchange has manipulated the price of bitcoin. Mt. Gox, the now-defunct Tokyo exchange that handled 70% of all bitcoin transactions before it collapsed in 2014, also manipulated its markets. Former Mt. Gox CEO Mark Karpeles admitted in court to operating a “Willy Bot.” An academic paper titled “The Willy Report” shows how the bots were responsible for much of bitcoin’s 2013 price rise.

September 28, 2017 — Friedman LLP issues a report alleging that Tether’s US dollar balances ($443 million) match the amount of tethers in circulation at the time. Falling short of an audit, the report does not disclose the names or the locations of banks. 

According to the report, “FLLP did not evaluate the terms of the above bank accounts and makes no representations about the Client’s ability to access funds from the accounts or whether the funds are committed for purposes other than Tether token redemptions.”

August 7, 2017 — In a  blog post (archive), Bitfinex announces that over the next 90 days, it will gradually discontinue services to its U.S. customers. Effective almost immediately, U.S. citizens are no longer able to trade Ethereum-based ERC20 tokens, which are commonly associated with initial coin offerings (ICOs).

The news follows regulatory crackdowns in the U.S. (The previous month, the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission issued an investigative report that deemed that tokens issued by the DAO—an investor-directed fund built on top of Ethereum that crashed spectacularly—were securities.) 

November 7, 2017 Leaked documents dubbed “The Paradise Papers” reveal Bitfinex and Tether are run by the same individuals. Up until now, Tether and Bitfinex insisted the two operations were separate, though they were widely suspected to be the same.

November 19, 2017 Tether is hacked when 31 million tether are moved from the Tether treasury wallet into an unauthorized Bitcoin address. Tether initiates a hard fork to prevent those funds from being spent.

After this hack, Tether notes on its website (archive) that redemption of USDT for real dollars is no longer possible via the Tether website. (It is worth noting that there is no record of anyone having redeemed their USDT for dollars at any point before this either.)

Tether writes:

“Until we are able to migrate to the new platform, the purchase or sale of Tether will not be possible directly through tether.to. For the time being, though, we invite you to use the services of any one of a dozen global exchanges to acquire or dispose of Tethers for either USD or other cryptocurrencies. Such exchanges and other qualified corporate customers can contact Tether directly to arrange for creation and redemption. Sadly, however, we cannot create or redeem tether for any U.S.-based customers at this time.”

November 30, 2017 — Bitfinex hires 5W, a scrappy New-York public relations firm led by Ronn Torossian. 5W promptly issues a press release saying that an “audit” from Friedman LLP is forthcoming. The agency also tells journalists they can view Bitfinex’s bank accounts if they sign an non-disclosure agreement first. No journalist takes the bait.

December 4, 2017 Bitfinex hires law firm Steptoe & Johnson and threatens legal action against critics. The exchange does not specify who exactly those critics are, but the obvious target is Bitfinex’ed, the cynical blogger, who continues to accuse Bitfinex of manipulating markets and printing more tether than it can redeem.

December 6, 2017 The U.S. Commodity and Futures Trading Commission subpoenas Bitfinex and Tether, Bloomberg reports. The actual documents are not made public.   

December 16, 2017 — The price of bitcoin reaches an all-time high of nearly $20,000, marking the end of a spectacular run-up. A year prior, one bitcoin was only $780.

December 21, 2017 Without making any formal announcement, Bitfinex appears to suddenly close all new account registrations. Those trying to register for a new account are asked for a mysterious referral code, but no referral code seems to exist.

December 31, 2017 — In the year 2017, Tether issued roughly 1.4 billion USDT.

January 3, 2018— A change to Tether’s legal terms of service (archive) states: “Beginning on January 1, 2018, Tether Tokens will no longer be issued to U.S. Persons.”

January 12, 2018 After a month of being closed to new registrations, Bitfinex announces it is reopening its doors, but now requires new customers to deposit $10,000 in fiat or crypto before they can trade. Bitfinex does not officially say this, but customers also can no longer make fiat withdrawals of less than $10,000 either. 

January 27, 2018 — Tether parts ways with accounting firm Friedman LLP. There is no official announcement—Friedman simply deletes all mention of Bitfinex from its web site, including past press releases.

A Tether spokesperson tells CoinDesk: “Given the excruciatingly detailed procedures Friedman was undertaking for the relatively simple balance sheet of Tether, it became clear that an audit would be unattainable in a reasonable time frame.”  

January 31, 2018 — As the price of bitcoin plummets, tether issuance takes on a rapid, frenzied pace. In January, Tether issues 850 million USDT, more than any single month prior. Of this, roughly 250 million were created during a mid-month bitcoin price crash.

February 2018 — an ex-NFL owner named Reginald Fowler registers a company called Global Trading Solutions LLC. He goes on to set up bank accounts under the company’s name at HSBC. (Pay attention to these names. They are about to become very important.)

March 28, 2018 — Bitfinex weighs a move to Switzerland. Bitfinex CEO Jean-Louis van der Velde tells Swiss news outlet Handelszeitung, “We are looking for a new home for Bitfinex and the parent company iFinex, where we want to merge the operations previously spread over several locations.”

February 20, 2018 — Dutch bank ING confirms Bitfinex has an account there. Two members of parliament in the Netherlands lodge questions for the finance minister after Dutch news site Follow The Money first disclosed the relationship on February 14.

May 23, 2018 — Phil Potter steps down from his role as Bitfinex chief strategy officer. “As Bitfinex pivots away from the U.S., I felt that, as a U.S. person, it was time for me to rethink my position as a member of the executive team,” he says in a statement.

May 24, 2018 — Bloomberg confirms previous speculations that Bitfinex has been banking at Puerto Rico’s Noble Bank since 2017. Tether founder Brock Pierce is a cofounder of Noble Bank, along with John Betts, a former Wall Street executive.

These individuals had past dealings. In 2014, Betts led a group called Sunlot Holdings to try and acquire the failed Mt. Gox exchange. Pierce, along with former FBI director Louis Freeh were also involved in that effort. (Freeh’s name will appear again on this timeline.)

May 24, 2018 — The U.S. Justice Department launches a criminal probe into bitcoin markets. The focus is on practices like spoofing and wash trading, where a trader simultaneously buys and sells assets to increase trading volume. The criminal probe will bring in other agencies, including the CFTC.

June 1, 2018 — Looking to reassure its customers, Bitfinex hires Freeh Sporkin & Sullivan (FSS), a law firm co-founded by Louis Freeh (yes, the same Freeh who held an advisory role at Sunlot Holdings) to confirm that Tether has $2.55 billion in its banks, enough to cover the USDT in circulation at the time.

FSS is not an accounting firm and this is in no way an official audit. Furthermore, there may be a conflict of interest here. Eugene Sullivan, senior partner at FSS, is also an advisor to Noble Bank, where Bitfinex/Tether does its banking.

“The bottom line is an audit cannot be obtained,” Stuart Hoegner, Bitfinex and Tether’s general counsel, tells Bloomberg. “The big four firms are anathema to that level of risk…. We’ve gone for what we think is the next best thing.”

June 25, 2018 — Bolstering suspicions that tether is being used to prop up the price of bitcoin, two researchers—John Griffin and Amin Shams—at the University of Austin, Texas, release a paper titled “Is Bitcoin Really Un-Tethered?” The two write:

“Using algorithms to analyze the blockchain data, we find that purchases with tether are timed following market downturns and result in sizable increases in bitcoin prices.” 

June 27, 2018 — Several Bitfinex customers report delayed and rejected wire deposits. A representative of Bitfinex named “Garbis” takes to Reddit (archive) to explain that the situation was caused by a change in banking relations.

October 1, 2018 — Reports circulate that Noble Bank is up for sale, as a result of having lost several of its big customers, including Bitfinex and Tether. (I don’t know this for sure, but my guess is that Noble’s custodial bank in New York likely told Noble to end its relationship with Bitfinex.)  

October 6, 2018 — According to a report in The Block, Bitfinex appears to be banking at HSBC—a bank that has previously been fined $1.9 billion in 2012 for money laundering—under the shell account “Global Trading Solutions.”  

October 7, 2018 — Bitfinex pushes back on claims that it is insolvent. “Bitfinex is not insolvent, and a constant stream of Medium articles claiming otherwise is not going to change this,” Bitfinex writes in a blog post (archive). As proof, it publishes three bitcoin cold wallet addresses that collectively hold about $1.5 billion in assets.

October 10, 2018 — Four days after reports comes out that Bitfinex is banking at HSBC, Bitfinex temporarily suspends all cash deposits, suggesting that the exchange is once again on the hunt for a new reserve bank.  

October 14, 2018 — Amid concerns over Tether’s solvency and the company’s ability to establish banking relationships, tether’s peg slips again, this time to $0.92, according to CoinMarketCap, which aggregates prices from major exchanges. On a single crypto exchange Kraken, tether momentarily slips to $0.85.  

October 16, 2018 — Tether appears to be holding reserves at Bahamas’ Deltec Bank. According to earlier rumors, the bank account was set up by Daniel Kelman, a crypto lawyer who was actively involved in trying to free the remaining Mt. Gox funds.

Further, Bitfinex appears to be banking through the Bank of Communications under “Prosperity Revenue Merchandising,” a shell company created June 5, 2018. The Hong Kong bank is owned in part by HSBC and uses Citibank as an intermediate to send deposits to Deltec in the Bahamas.

October 24, 2018 — In a blog post (archive), Tether announces it has “redeemed a significant amount of USDT” and will now burn 500 million USDT, representing those redemptions. According to the firm, the remaining 446 million USDT in its treasury will be used as a “preparatory measures for future USDT issuances.”

November 1, 2018 — Tether confirms it is banking with the Deltec in the Bahamas and provides an attestation letter from the bank that the account holds $1.8 billion, enough to cover the amount of tether in circulation at the time. The attestation has a mysterious squiggly signature at the bottom with no name attached to it. 

November 30, 2018 — Recall that in May 2017, the U.S. Department of Justice together with the U.S. Commodity and Exchange Commission (CFTC) began looking into illegal manipulation of bitcoin prices. And then in December 2017, the CFTC subpoenaed both Tether and Bitfinex. Now federal prosecutors have supposedly “homed in on suspicions that a tangled web involving Bitcoin, Tether and crypto exchange Bitfinex might have been used to illegally move prices,” according to Bloomberg

November 27, 2018 — In a blog post (archive), Tether says its customers can once again redeem tether for actual dollars. But again, there are no reports or evidence of anyone having been able to redeem tether ever. 

December, 18, 2018 — Bloomberg reports it has seen Tether bank statements from accounts at Puerto Rico’s Noble Bank and the Bank of Montreal, taken over four separate months. The article suggests that Tether held sufficient dollars to back the tether tokens on the market. But again this is not a real audit. What stands out is that $61 million in the Bank of Montreal is listed under Stuart Hoegner, the firm’s general counsel.

December 31, 2018 — In the year 2018, Tether issued more than 1 billion tether.

January 16, 2019 — Bitfinex opens a data center in Switzerland, according to Swiss news outlet Handelszeitung. The report states that previously, Bitfinex was relying on Amazon cloud servers.

February 25, 2019 — In a blog post (archive), Bitfinex claims the U.S. government has located 27.7 BTC (worth about $100,000) taken from Bitfinex in the August 2016 hack and returned the funds to Bitfinex. The exchange says it has converted those bitcoin into USD and distributed the money to its RRT token holders. What is odd here is that the U.S. Department of Justice hasn’t issued any statement about recovered bitcoin. And Bitfinex doesn’t share a transaction record to show it actually received the recovered funds. 

February 26, 2019 — Tether admits, for the first time, that it is operating a fractional reserve. An update on the company’s website reads:

“Every tether is always 100% backed by our reserves, which include traditional currency and cash equivalents and, from time to time, may include other assets and receivables from loans made by Tether to third parties, which may include affiliated entities (collectively, “reserves”). Every tether is also 1-to-1 pegged to the dollar, so 1 USD₮ is always valued by Tether at 1 USD.”

Here is what the text read before:

“Every tether is always backed 1-to-1, by traditional currency held in our reserves. So 1 USD₮ is always equivalent to 1 USD.”

The change is also updated in Tether’s legal section

April 9, 2019 — The $10,000 minimum equity requirement to start trading has been lifted. “We simply could not ignore the increasing level of requests for access to trade on Bitfinex from a wider cohort than our traditional customer base,” CEO Jean-Louis van der Velde says in a blog post (archive). Meanwhile, customers continue to complain that they are unable to get cash off of the exchange. And now some are saying they are having trouble getting their crypto off the exchange as well. 

April 11, 2019 — Bitfinex enables margin trading on tether. Margin pairs include BTC/USDT and ETH/USDT. 

On this same day, Reginald Fowler, an Arizona man, and Ravid Yosef, who lives in Los Angeles and Tel Aviv, are indicted in the US for charges related to bank fraud. The two were allegedly part of a scheme that involved setting up bank accounts under false pretenses to move money on behalf of series of cryptocurrency exchanges. (CoinDesk

April 17, 2019 — Tether goes live on the Tron network as a TRC-20 token, a standard used by the Tron blockchain for implementing tokens, similar to and compatible with Ethereum’s ERC-20 standard. You can view the issuance on Tronscan.

April 24, 2019 — The New York Attorney General’s (NYAG) office sues iFinex, the parent company of Bitfinex and Tether, saying that the company has been commingling client and corporate funds to cover up $850 million in missing funds. 

From 2014 to 2018, Bitfinex placed over $1 billion with Crypto Capital because it was unable to find a reputable bank to work with it. Crypto Capital then either lost, stole, or absconded with $850 million.

In order to fill the gap, Bitfinex dipped into Tether’s reserves for hundreds of millions of dollars. According to the NYAG, “Despite the sheer amount of money it handed over, Bitfinex never signed a contract or other agreement with Crypto Capital.” 

April 26, 2019 — In a response to OAG’s allegations, Bitfinex says the $850 million has not been lost, but rather “seized and safeguarded.” Meanwhile, according to CoinDesk, Zhao Dong, a Bitfinex shareholder, claims that Bitfinex CFO Giancarlo Devasini told him that the exchange just needs a few weeks to unfreeze the funds.

April 30, 2019 — In response to the NYAG’s ex parte order, Tether general counsel Stuart Hoegner files an affidavit accompanied by a motion to vacate from outside counsel Zoe Phillips of Morgan Lewis. Hoegner admits 2.8 billion worth are only 74% backed. Morgan says New York has no jurisdiction over Tether or Bitfinex’s actions. 

On this same day, Reginald Fowler is arrested in Chandler, Arizona.

May 2, 2019 — The U.S. Government wants Fowler held without bail due to flight risk. 

May 3, 2019 — The NYAG files an opposition to Bitfinex’s motion to vacate. Bitfinex follows two days later with a response to the opposition. In the memo, Bitfinex argues that “nothing in the Attorney General’s opposition papers justifies the ex parte order having been issued in the first place.” 

May 8, 2019 — iFinex has a new plan to raise $1 billion: a token sale. The company releases a white paper for a new LEO token. Each token is worth 1 USDT.

On this same day, Reginald Fowler, the man linked to $850 million in missing Bitfinex funds, is out on $5 million bail. He is required to give up his passport. Bail is posted in the Southern District of New York, where he is to appear for arraignment on May 15. His travel is restricted to parts of New York and Arizona. 

May 6, 2019 — New York Supreme Court judge Joel M. Cohen rules that the OAG’s ex parte order should remain in effect, at least in part. However, he thinks the injunction is “amorphous and endless.” He gives the two parties a week to work out a compromise and submit new proposals for what the scope of the injunction should be.

May 13, 2019 — Attorneys for the OAG and iFinex failed to come to a consensus on what Tether should be allowed to do with its holdings. They both submit separate proposals. iFinex is asking for a 45-day limit on the injunction and it wants Tether employees to get paid using Tether’s reserves. The OAG is not opposed to Tether’s employees being paid, but it wants Tether to to pay its employees using transaction fees—not reserves.

May 16, 2019 — Judge Cohen grants Bitfinex’s motion to modify a preliminary injunction. The preliminary injunction is limited to 90 days, and Tether is allowed to use its reserves to pay its employees. The judge holds that the Martin Act “does not provide a roving mandate to regulate commercial activity.” Bitfinex and Tether still have to handover documents that the OAG requested in its November 2018 investigative subpoena

May 21, 2019 — Bitfinex files a motion to dismiss the proceeding brought by the NYAG on the grounds that Bitfinex/Tether do not do business in NY, the Martin Act does not apply to its business and the Martin Act cannot be used to compel a foreign corporation to produce documents stored overseas. Bitfinex and Tether also sought an immediate stay of the NYAG’s document demands.

May 22, 2019 — Judge Joel M. Cohen of the New York Supreme Court grants Bitfinex’s motion for an immediate stay of the document demands. He issues an order requiring the companies to produce only documents relevant to the limited issue of whether there is personal jurisdiction over the companies in New York but staying the document order in all other respects. The NYAG has until July 8 to file a response. And the judge schedules a hearing on the motion to dismiss for July 29.

July 8, 2019 — The NYAG has filed its response

July 22, 2019 — iFinex files court docs arguing once again that Bitfinex/Tether are not doing any business in New York and tether is not a security. (Here is Bitfinex counsel Stuart Hoegner’s affidavit and an accompanying memorandum of law submitted by the company’s outside counsel). It all boils down to “yeah, but, no, but yeah.” 

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News: ETC hit by 51% attack, Tron is a marketing machine, and India’s banks want nothing to do with bitcoin

screen shot 2019-01-12 at 10.30.16 pmEthereum Classic was hit by a 51% attack. A private pool got hold of more than half of the network’s computing power and used that to rewrite history and double spend nearly $1.1 million ETC, the platform’s native currency. Coinbase noted the attack on January 5, and followed with a detailed analysis of what happened.

Here is the irony: Ethereum Classic was founded on the principle of immutability, meaning good or bad, legal or illegal, whatever transactions happen on the network, happen, and you have to live with it. The project took over the pre-fork chain after Ethereum forked to reverse transactions in the DAO hack. If Ethereum Classic wants to stand on that hill, it may have to suffer the consequences, which so far, have not been terrible. ETC was $5 at the time of the attack and is now at $4.66.

Bitcoin saw its 10-year anniversary on January 9. CoinDesk threw a whopping party in New York City, which, judging by photos, was well attended by a lot of white men. For bitcoiners, 10 years is a mark of resilience. But it is worth noting, for the most part, you still cannot buy groceries or pay rent with bitcoin. And if you bought bitcoin a year ago ($14,000) and sold today ($3,700), you would have lost two-thirds of your investment — so much for store of value.

KodakOne announced it generated $1 million in “post-licensing claims” on a beta of its platform. Breaker’s David Z. Morris did a softball interview with KodakOne’s Cam Shell, omitting tough questions like, “How in god’s name did you manage to come out with a beta version of the platform while stiffing all your developers?” I followed up with a story of my own as did Decrypt Media’s Ben Munster and David Gerard, explaining that the $1 million is completely hypothetical money.

Justin Sun, the CEO of blockchain platform Tron, has been unveiled as technically incompetent. Tron recently bought file-sharing client BitTorrent, Now it wants to launch a BitTorrent token. But, in a Breaker interview (another story by Z. Morris, but this one, really good), former BitTorrent executive Simon Morris said there is no way Tron can handle the transaction volume. Simon also said Sun has no technical know-how and Tron is basically little more than a marketing machine.  

Rumors swirled a week ago that the co-CEOs of Chinese crypto miner maker Bitmain, Wu Jihan and Zhan Ketuan were going to step down. Turns out, the rumors are true, and Wang Haichao, Bitmain’s director of product engineering, has stepped in to replace them as CEO. In December, CoinDesk reported that Bitmain may be letting go of half of its 3,100 workforce. None of this bodes well for the company’s upcoming IPO.

If you want to trade bitcoin in India, you better keep that information well hidden from your bank. The country’s banks are sending out notices warning customers that they will close accounts without notice, if customers are found dealing in cryptocurrency.

The Texas Department of Banking released a supervisory memorandum on January 2 in regard to treatment of virtual currencies under the Texas Money Services Act. According to the memo, Texas considers pegged stablecoins, like tether, money, which means that anyone dealing with them may need to apply for a Texas money transmitter license.